✓ Free forever starter plan
✓ No credit card required.

Product-led growth framework: An essential guide (2024)

Learn, implement, and succeed with Product-Led Growth: Our guide unveils frameworks and examples for business transformation.

February 5, 2024
Team Blitzllama

In today's competitive market, product owners and managers face the challenge of driving growth effectively. Understanding how to propel growth through products is crucial. 

Many struggle with implementing efficient frameworks to achieve this goal. Identifying customers' needs and adapting products accordingly remains a significant hurdle. 

However, there's a solution: product-led growth frameworks. This article simplifies the complexities, offering actionable insights and strategies for leveraging these frameworks effectively. 

By understanding the problem, empathizing with the challenges, and implementing the solutions provided here, product owners and managers can navigate the intricate landscape of product-led growth with confidence and success.

What is product-led growth?

Product-led growth is a strategy where a product's features and usability drive user acquisition and retention. Instead of relying on traditional sales methods, the product itself becomes the main vehicle for customer acquisition. 

Users are encouraged to explore the product independently, with a focus on providing a seamless and valuable experience. This approach often involves offering free trials or freemium models to attract users organically. 

Product owners and managers should prioritize building a product that users can easily understand and adopt without extensive assistance. This approach fosters customer satisfaction, word-of-mouth referrals, and ultimately contributes to sustainable business growth.

Understanding the fundamentals of product-led growth sets the stage for exploring its unique characteristics and significance in today's market.

What makes product-led growth unique?

Product-led growth stands out because it prioritizes the product experience as the key driver of business growth. Unlike traditional sales-led approaches, it empowers users to explore, adopt, and derive value from the product independently, often through self-service models:

What makes product-led growth unique?

1) Cost-effective

Product-led growth stands out for its cost-effectiveness in driving business growth. Unlike traditional methods that often require substantial financial investments, product-led growth relies on the inherent value of the product itself to attract and retain users. 

By focusing resources on product development and user experience, companies can optimize their spending and achieve significant results with minimal expenditure on marketing and sales efforts.

2) User-focused

At the heart of product-led growth is a relentless focus on the user. Rather than relying solely on sales teams to push products onto customers, this approach prioritizes understanding user needs and preferences. 

By gathering insights through user feedback, analytics, and user behavior patterns, product owners and managers can tailor their offerings to precisely meet user demands. This user-centric approach fosters stronger relationships between the product and its users, driving sustained growth and loyalty over time.

3) Results in high-quality products

Product-led growth emphasizes the continual enhancement of product quality. By consistently soliciting and incorporating user feedback, product teams can identify areas for improvement and innovation. 

This iterative process ensures that products evolve in line with user expectations and market trends, resulting in offerings that are not only competitive but also resonate deeply with users. 

High-quality products not only attract new users but also inspire loyalty and advocacy among existing ones, driving organic growth through positive word-of-mouth and referrals.

4) Iterative

One of the key principles of product-led growth is its iterative nature. Rather than pursuing a one-time, static product release, companies embracing this approach prioritize continuous improvement and iteration. 

Through rapid cycles of development, testing, and feedback incorporation, product teams can quickly adapt to changing market dynamics and user preferences. This iterative process enables companies to stay agile and responsive, constantly refining their products to deliver maximum value to users. 

By embracing a culture of experimentation and learning, organizations can unlock new opportunities for growth and innovation in an ever-evolving landscape.

Understanding the uniqueness of PLG sets the stage for exploring its significance in the broader business landscape.

Why is product-led growth important?

Product-led growth is important because it aligns businesses with evolving user preferences and behaviors. By focusing on delivering value through the product itself, companies can foster deeper user engagement, faster adoption rates, and sustainable growth trajectories:

Why is product-led growth important?

1) Increased customer acquisition and retention

Product-led growth is crucial for businesses as it enhances customer acquisition and retention. By offering a compelling product experience, companies attract more customers and keep them engaged over time. Users are more likely to stick with a product that addresses their needs effectively and provides a seamless experience from the start. With a focus on product-led strategies, businesses can capture a larger market share and sustain customer loyalty through continuous value delivery.

2) Faster and more efficient growth

Embracing product-led growth facilitates faster and more efficient expansion for businesses. Rather than relying solely on traditional sales and marketing tactics, companies leverage their products as primary drivers of growth. This approach allows for scalable customer acquisition through self-service models and viral loops. By empowering users to discover, adopt, and advocate for the product independently, businesses can achieve rapid growth rates while optimizing resource utilization and minimizing operational costs.

3) Improved customer experience

Product-led growth prioritizes the enhancement of customer experience throughout the user journey. By focusing on intuitive design, seamless onboarding processes, and proactive user support, companies ensure that customers derive maximum value from the product. A positive user experience fosters satisfaction, encourages retention, and generates positive word-of-mouth referrals. Moreover, continuous feedback loops enable businesses to iterate and improve the product iteratively, aligning with evolving customer needs and preferences.

4) Focused product development

Product-led growth fosters a culture of focused product development within organizations. By closely aligning product roadmaps with user feedback and market insights, companies can prioritize features and enhancements that drive user adoption and engagement. This iterative approach to product development emphasizes rapid experimentation, data-driven decision-making, and incremental improvements. By maintaining a clear focus on delivering value to users, businesses can iterate efficiently, mitigate risks, and stay ahead of competitors in dynamic market environments.

5) Higher customer satisfaction

Central to product-led growth is the pursuit of higher customer satisfaction levels. By delivering products that consistently meet or exceed user expectations, businesses cultivate strong relationships with their customer base. Satisfied customers are more likely to become loyal advocates, promoting the product to their networks and contributing to organic growth. Additionally, positive user experiences enhance brand reputation and credibility, positioning the company as a trusted industry leader. By prioritizing customer satisfaction as a key performance metric, businesses can drive sustainable growth and long-term success.

Now that we've highlighted the importance of product-led growth, let's move on to understanding the framework that supports its implementation.

What is a product-led growth framework?

A product-led growth framework is a systematic approach to driving expansion through product usage. It outlines methods for integrating the product into every stage of the customer journey. It focuses on enhancing the user experience to stimulate organic growth. 

The framework emphasizes iterative improvements based on user feedback. It involves understanding user behavior to refine the product continuously. Through effective product-led onboarding, users grasp the product's value quickly. 

The framework encourages a self-service model, allowing users to explore features independently. It prioritizes data-driven decision-making to optimize user engagement. Ultimately, the product-led growth framework aims to foster sustainable growth by aligning product development with user needs.

With a clear understanding of the framework, let's explore the different types of product-led growth frameworks available.

What are the various types of product-led growth frameworks?

Product-led growth frameworks come in diverse forms, each tailored to specific business needs. This section will categorize and explain the various types of PLG frameworks, providing insights into their applications and benefits:

1) Activate, start, discover, convert, scale

Activate, start, discover, convert, scale (ASDCS) is a product-led growth framework that outlines the key stages a user goes through when interacting with a product. 

These stages include activation, starting to use the product, discovering its features, converting into a paying customer, and ultimately scaling their usage.

ASDCS helps product owners and managers understand the user journey comprehensively, allowing them to identify areas for improvement and optimization at each stage.

ASDCS is particularly useful for new products or those experiencing low user engagement. It can also be applied when revamping existing products to enhance user experience and drive growth.

Activate, start, discover, convert, scale
Source: Hotjar

How to use the ASDCS framework?

  • Activation: Streamline the onboarding process to make it easy for users to sign up and start using the product.
  • Start: Provide users with immediate value upon using the product for the first time.
  • Discover: Offer guided tours, tutorials, or tooltips to help users explore the product's features.
  • Convert: Implement clear calls-to-action and incentives to encourage users to upgrade to premium features or subscriptions.
  • Scale: Continuously optimize the product experience to accommodate growing user needs and usage patterns.


Slack, a popular team communication tool, follows the ASDCS framework by offering a seamless onboarding experience, providing users with valuable messaging features, guiding them to explore advanced functionalities, incentivizing team upgrades, and scaling to support large organizations.

2) Product-led growth flywheel

The product-led growth flywheel is a cyclical model that illustrates how positive user experiences drive organic growth. 

It emphasizes the importance of delivering value to users, which leads to increased adoption, customer satisfaction, and ultimately, more referrals and expansion.

The flywheel model aligns with the principles of product-led growth by prioritizing user-centric strategies and fostering long-term customer relationships.

The product-led growth flywheel is effective for products with inherently viral or network effects, where user satisfaction and referrals play a significant role in driving adoption and expansion.

Product-led growth flywheel

How to use the product-led growth flywheel?

  • Deliver value: Focus on building a product that solves real user problems and delivers tangible benefits.
  • Drive adoption: Encourage users to actively engage with the product and share their positive experiences with others.
  • Facilitate expansion: Provide opportunities for users to upgrade their accounts, invite new users, or expand their usage within their organizations.
  • Capture feedback: Continuously gather user feedback to iterate and improve the product iteratively.
  • Optimize processes: Streamline onboarding, support, and upgrade processes to reduce friction and enhance user experience.


Zoom, a video conferencing platform, exemplifies the product-led growth flywheel by offering a reliable and user-friendly solution, encouraging users to invite colleagues and friends, expanding its feature set based on user feedback, and driving adoption across organizations of all sizes.

3) Product-led growth loops

Product-led growth loops are self-reinforcing mechanisms that leverage user actions to drive further engagement and growth. 

These loops typically involve viral or network effects where each user action contributes to the acquisition of new users.

Product-led growth loops capitalize on the inherent scalability of digital products and maximize the impact of user interactions in driving organic growth.

Product-led growth loops are most effective for products with built-in virality or network effects, where user actions directly contribute to the acquisition of new users.

Product-led growth loops

How to use the product-led growth loops?

  • Identify triggers: Determine key user actions or triggers that can initiate the growth loop, such as inviting new users or sharing content.
  • Facilitate sharing: Provide users with easy-to-use sharing mechanisms to amplify the reach of the product.
  • Incentivize participation: Offer rewards, discounts, or exclusive features to encourage users to participate in the growth loop.
  • Optimize virality: Continuously analyze user behavior and iterate on the product to optimize virality and maximize the impact of each user action.


Dropbox employs a product-led growth loop by offering users additional storage space for inviting friends to join the platform. As more users join and invite others, Dropbox's user base grows organically, driving further engagement and expansion.

4) Hook model

The Hook Model is a framework that aims to create habit-forming products by leveraging four key elements: trigger, action, variable reward, and investment. These elements work together to encourage repeated use and foster user habits.

The Hook Model helps product owners and managers design products that become integral parts of users' daily routines, driving long-term engagement and loyalty.

The Hook Model is particularly effective for products that rely on frequent user interactions, such as social media platforms, productivity tools, and gaming apps.

Hook model

How to use the hook model?

  • Trigger: Identify internal and external triggers that prompt users to take action, such as notifications or emotional cues.
  • Action: Design a simple and intuitive user flow that makes it easy for users to engage with the product.
  • Variable reward: Provide users with unpredictable rewards or outcomes to create anticipation and encourage repeated use.
  • Investment: Encourage users to invest time, effort, or data into the product, increasing their commitment and attachment over time.


Instagram utilizes the Hook Model by sending notifications (trigger) to notify users of new likes or comments, prompting them to open the app (action) to view the activity. The variable reward of social validation keeps users engaged, while the investment of posting photos and interacting with others strengthens their attachment to the platform.

5) Product-led growth funnel

The product-led growth funnel is a framework that visualizes the user journey from initial awareness to conversion and beyond. It highlights the key stages of user acquisition, activation, retention, monetization, and advocacy.

The product-led growth funnel provides product owners and managers with insights into the user lifecycle, helping them identify areas for improvement and optimization to drive growth and maximize user value.

The product-led growth funnel is applicable to products of all types and sizes, providing a structured approach to understanding and optimizing the user journey.

Product-led growth funnel

How to use the product-led growth funnel?

  • Acquisition: Increase brand visibility and attract potential users through marketing, advertising, and content strategies.
  • Activation: Simplify onboarding processes and deliver immediate value to encourage users to start using the product.
  • Retention: Provide ongoing support, updates, and personalized experiences to keep users engaged and coming back.
  • Advocacy: Encourage satisfied users to refer others and become brand advocates, driving organic growth and expanding the user base.
  • Monetization: Offer premium features, subscriptions, or upsell opportunities to generate revenue from active users.


Netflix illustrates the product-led growth funnel by leveraging targeted marketing campaigns (acquisition), providing a seamless onboarding experience (activation), offering personalized recommendations to keep users engaged (retention), introducing subscription plans with varying features (monetization), and encouraging satisfied subscribers to share their favorite shows with friends (advocacy).

6) Single point of truth

A single point of truth is a centralized source of data or information that serves as the authoritative reference for decision-making and analysis within an organization. It ensures consistency, accuracy, and transparency across departments and teams.

A single point of truth eliminates data silos, reduces ambiguity, and fosters alignment, enabling organizations to make informed decisions and drive cohesive strategies.

Implementing a single point of truth is essential for organizations experiencing data fragmentation, inconsistencies, or inefficiencies in decision-making processes.

Single point of truth
Source: Hotjar

How to use the single point of truth framework?

  • Data integration: Consolidate data from disparate sources into a centralized repository to create a unified view of information.
  • Data governance: Establish rules, standards, and protocols for data management to ensure accuracy, security, and compliance.
  • Collaboration: Foster cross-functional collaboration and communication to promote shared understanding and accountability.
  • Continuous improvement: Regularly review and update processes, technologies, and workflows to adapt to evolving business needs and data requirements.


Salesforce implements a single point of truth by integrating customer data from various sources, including sales, marketing, and customer support, into its CRM platform. This centralized repository enables sales teams to access real-time insights, track customer interactions, and collaborate effectively across departments to drive revenue growth and customer satisfaction.

Now that we've explored different frameworks, let's see real-world examples of companies successfully implementing product-led growth.

Examples of companies using product-led growth frameworks

Drawing inspiration from real-world success stories, this section will highlight notable companies that have effectively employed product-led growth strategies. Examining these examples will provide valuable insights for product owners and managers looking to implement similar approaches in their respective industries:

1) Slack’s product-led growth framework

Slack, a pioneer in the collaboration tools space, has successfully embraced the product-led growth framework. The company has strategically utilized its product to not only acquire new users but also to foster engagement and retention.

User onboarding: Slack's user onboarding process is seamless and intuitive, guiding users through the platform's features effortlessly. The product encourages users to invite team members, promoting virality and expanding the user base organically.

Slack user onboarding

Freemium model: Slack employs a freemium model, allowing users to experience the core functionalities for free. This attracts a large user base, creating a network effect. The free version serves as a powerful marketing tool, showcasing the value of Slack and enticing users to upgrade for additional features.

Slack freemium pricing

In-app upselling: The platform excels at in-app upselling, promoting premium features within the user interface without being intrusive. By highlighting the benefits of paid plans during the user's natural workflow, Slack increases the likelihood of conversions.

Slack in-app upselling

User feedback loop: Slack maintains a robust feedback loop, actively listening to user suggestions and implementing relevant features. This continuous improvement process not only enhances user satisfaction but also contributes to the product's evolution based on user needs.

Slack user feedback loop
Source: Productboard

Integration ecosystem: Slack's extensive integration ecosystem enhances its product-led growth strategy. Integrating with popular tools allows users to customize their experience, making Slack an indispensable hub for collaboration.

Slack integrations
Source: UXcollective

2) Calendly’s product-led growth framework

Calendly, a scheduling tool, exemplifies the product-led growth framework by simplifying the user journey and focusing on user experience.

Intuitive onboarding: Calendly's onboarding process is user-friendly, requiring minimal effort to set up and start using the platform. The intuitive design ensures users quickly grasp the value of the product, leading to faster activation.

Calendly's onboarding

Value-based features: Calendly offers value-based features that resonate with users, such as automated scheduling and time-zone detection. These features address pain points directly, showcasing the product's utility and driving user engagement.

Calendly's value based features

Referral mechanism: A key aspect of Calendly's growth strategy is its referral program, encouraging users to invite colleagues and friends. This organic growth approach leverages existing user satisfaction to expand the user base.

Calendly's referral traffic
Source: FoundationMarketing

Customer education: Calendly invests in customer education, providing resources such as webinars and tutorials. By empowering users with knowledge, Calendly ensures users maximize the platform's capabilities, leading to increased retention.

Calendly's resources

Responsive support: The platform maintains responsive customer support & resources, addressing user queries promptly. This commitment to customer satisfaction contributes to positive user experiences and fosters loyalty.

Calednly's help center

3) Notion’s product-led growth framework 

Notion, a versatile workspace tool, employs a product-led growth strategy centered around flexibility and collaboration.

Flexible onboarding: Notion's onboarding process allows users to customize their workspace from the start, showcasing the platform's adaptability. Users can tailor Notion to their specific needs, fostering a sense of ownership and connection.

Notion onboarding

Collaboration features: Notion's emphasis on collaboration features, such as real-time editing and commenting, positions it as a central hub for teams. The product's collaborative nature encourages team adoption, driving growth through group usage.

Notion collaboration

Tiered pricing model: Notion's tiered pricing model accommodates both individual users and larger teams. This flexibility enables the platform to capture a wide market, from freelancers to enterprise-level organizations.

Notion pricing

Continuous updates: Notion prioritizes continuous updates, introducing new features and improvements regularly. This commitment to innovation keeps the product relevant and motivates users to explore and adopt new functionalities.

Notion updates

Community engagement: Notion fosters a vibrant user community, encouraging users to share templates and best practices. This sense of community enhances the overall user experience and contributes to organic growth through word-of-mouth.

Notion community

4) Spotify’s product-led growth framework

Spotify, a global leader in the music streaming industry, has embraced a product-led growth approach to captivate users and retain its position in a competitive market.

Personalization algorithm: Spotify's product-led growth is evident in its advanced personalization algorithm, offering users curated playlists and recommendations. This tailored content keeps users engaged and invested in the platform, reducing churn rates.

Spotify's personalized recommendations

Freemium model: The freemium model allows users to access a basic version of Spotify for free, with the option to upgrade for an ad-free experience and additional features. This approach widens the user base while providing an avenue for revenue through premium subscriptions.

Spotify pricing

Social integration: Spotify leverages social integration, enabling users to share their music preferences on social media. This social sharing aspect serves as a form of user-generated marketing, attracting new users through recommendations from friends and followers.

Spotify integration with social media platforms

Podcast integration: Recognizing the growing popularity of podcasts, Spotify strategically integrated podcasts into its platform. This expansion of content offerings caters to evolving user preferences, enhancing the overall user experience.

Spotify podcasts

Data-driven decision making: Spotify utilizes data analytics to understand user behavior and preferences. This data-driven approach informs decision-making, ensuring that product updates and features align with user expectations.

Having seen successful implementations, let's turn our attention to measuring the success of a product-led growth framework in your product strategy.

How to measure the success of product-led growth framework implementation in your product strategy?

Measuring the success of a product-led growth framework is crucial for refining strategies and achieving long-term business goals. This section will outline key performance indicators (KPIs) and metrics to assess the impact of PLG on your product strategy, ensuring continuous improvement and adaptation:

1) Time to value:

Time to value measures how quickly new users grasp the benefits of your product. For instance, if you're offering a project management tool, users should efficiently understand how to create and manage tasks. Slack, a communication platform, ensures users experience immediate value by facilitating team communication instantly upon signup. Tracking the time from registration to the first meaningful interaction with your product helps gauge its effectiveness.

2) Free-to-paid conversion rate:

This metric signifies the effectiveness of your product in converting free users into paying customers. For example, Dropbox offers a free storage plan with limited space, nudging users to upgrade for more features and storage. A high conversion rate indicates that users find value in the premium offerings. Monitoring the transition from free to paid subscriptions provides insights into the product's appeal and its ability to monetize user engagement.

3) Expansion revenue:

Expansion revenue showcases the success of your product in increasing sales from existing customers. For instance, Spotify offers premium subscriptions with additional features like ad-free listening and offline playback, enticing free users to upgrade. By cross-selling or offering add-ons, you can boost revenue from your existing user base. Tracking the revenue generated from upselling and cross-selling activities demonstrates the effectiveness of your product in driving customer growth.

4) Average revenue per user:

Average revenue per user (ARPU) reflects the average contribution of each customer to your business. For instance, if your SaaS platform generates $10,000 in monthly recurring revenue (MRR) from 100 customers, the ARPU would be $100. Increasing ARPU indicates improved monetization strategies or higher-value offerings. By analyzing ARPU trends over time, you can assess the scalability and sustainability of your product-led growth model.

As we've learned how to measure the success of product-led growth frameworks, let's look at the tools available for implementing and optimizing your product strategy.

Best tools that can help in your product-led growth journey

To implement a successful product-led growth strategy, leveraging the right tools is essential. This section will introduce and discuss tools that aid in user analytics, product adoption, and customer engagement, providing product owners and managers with valuable resources to enhance their PLG initiatives:

1) Blitzllama


Blitzllama is an in-product survey tool designed to gather valuable feedback from your users effortlessly. With Blitzllama, you can create and deploy surveys directly within your product, allowing you to gather insights without disrupting the user experience. This tool enables you to understand your users' needs, preferences, and pain points in real-time. By leveraging Blitzllama, product owners and managers can make data-driven decisions to enhance their product offerings and drive growth effectively.

2) Hotjar


Hotjar is a powerful tool that provides insightful analytics and feedback by visually representing user behavior on your website. Through heatmaps, session recordings, and user surveys, Hotjar helps product teams understand how users interact with their product. This tool enables product owners and managers to identify areas of improvement, optimize user experience, and increase conversion rates. With Hotjar, you can gain actionable insights to enhance your product-led growth strategy and drive meaningful results.

3) Amplitude


Amplitude is a comprehensive analytics platform designed to help product teams understand user behavior, analyze product usage, and drive growth. With Amplitude, product owners and managers can track key metrics, conduct cohort analysis, and gain deep insights into user engagement patterns. This tool empowers teams to iterate quickly, experiment with new features, and optimize the user journey for maximum impact. By leveraging Amplitude, product-led organizations can make informed decisions and drive sustainable growth over time.

4) Appcues


Appcues is a user onboarding and engagement platform that enables product teams to create personalized user experiences without writing a single line of code. With Appcues, product owners and managers can design interactive tutorials, tooltips, and announcements to guide users through their product journey seamlessly. This tool helps reduce friction, increase user activation, and drive product adoption effectively. By leveraging Appcues, product-led organizations can deliver exceptional user experiences and foster long-term customer relationships.

5) Pendo


Pendo is a product analytics and user feedback platform that helps product teams understand and improve the user experience. With Pendo, product owners and managers can track feature usage, gather qualitative feedback, and measure user sentiment in real-time. This tool enables teams to prioritize product enhancements, deliver personalized experiences, and drive user engagement effectively. By leveraging Pendo, product-led organizations can align their roadmap with customer needs, iterate quickly, and drive sustainable growth in today's competitive landscape.


In conclusion, product-led growth frameworks offer actionable strategies for product owners and managers. They prioritize user experience and customer satisfaction, driving sustainable growth. By focusing on product usability and value, companies can efficiently acquire and retain customers. 

Implementing these frameworks requires clear goals, continuous iteration, and data-driven insights. Effective communication across teams ensures alignment and fosters innovation. Embracing experimentation and feedback loops empowers teams to adapt to evolving market demands. 

Ultimately, product-led approaches foster customer-centric cultures and drive long-term success. As product owners and managers embrace these frameworks, they unlock opportunities for scalable growth and lasting customer relationships.

FAQs related to product-led growth framework

1) What is a product-led growth model?

A product-led growth model is a strategy where the product itself acts as the primary driver of acquisition, conversion, and expansion. In this model, users independently discover, use, and derive value from the product with minimal need for human interaction. The focus lies on delivering a seamless user experience, encouraging self-service, and facilitating viral adoption through product usage.

2) What is the PLG framework?

The PLG framework outlines a systematic approach to leveraging the product as the central engine of growth. It involves aligning product development, marketing, and sales efforts to empower users to explore and adopt the product autonomously. This framework emphasizes iterative improvements based on user feedback, data-driven decision-making, and constant optimization of the user journey to drive sustainable growth and customer satisfaction.

3) What is the difference between PLG and SLG?

PLG, or Product-Led Growth, prioritizes the product as the primary driver of growth, with users independently navigating the product experience. On the other hand, SLG, or Sales-Led Growth, relies heavily on sales teams to drive customer acquisition and expansion through direct outreach and relationship-building. While SLG emphasizes personal interactions and sales-driven strategies, PLG focuses on empowering users to discover, adopt, and advocate for the product organically.

4) What is the product-led approach?

The product-led approach revolves around designing, building, and delivering products that are intuitive, valuable, and easy to adopt. It entails understanding user needs, preferences, and pain points to create seamless onboarding experiences, intuitive user interfaces, and self-service capabilities. By prioritizing user-centric design and continuous iteration, the product-led approach aims to drive product adoption, retention, and expansion through intrinsic product value and positive user experiences.